Platform-Agnostic Security Tokens implementation in GO (Golang)

Overview

Golang implementation of PASETO: Platform-Agnostic Security Tokens

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This is a 100% compatible pure Go (Golang) implementation of PASETO tokens.

PASETO is everything you love about JOSE (JWT, JWE, JWS) without any of the many design deficits that plague the JOSE standards.

Contents

What is PASETO?

PASETO (Platform-Agnostic SEcurity TOkens) is a specification and reference implementation for secure stateless tokens.

Key Differences between PASETO and JWT

Unlike JSON Web Tokens (JWT), which gives developers more than enough rope with which to hang themselves, PASETO only allows secure operations. JWT gives you "algorithm agility", PASETO gives you "versioned protocols". It's incredibly unlikely that you'll be able to use PASETO in an insecure way.

Caution: Neither JWT nor PASETO were designed for stateless session management. PASETO is suitable for tamper-proof cookies, but cannot prevent replay attacks by itself.

PASETO

PASETO Example 1

v2.local.QAxIpVe-ECVNI1z4xQbm_qQYomyT3h8FtV8bxkz8pBJWkT8f7HtlOpbroPDEZUKop_vaglyp76CzYy375cHmKCW8e1CCkV0Lflu4GTDyXMqQdpZMM1E6OaoQW27gaRSvWBrR3IgbFIa0AkuUFw.UGFyYWdvbiBJbml0aWF0aXZlIEVudGVycHJpc2Vz

This decodes to:

  • Version: v2
  • Purpose: local (shared-key authenticated encryption)
  • Payload (hex-encoded):
    400c48a557be10254d235cf8c506e6fea418a26c93de1f05b55f1bc64cfca412
    56913f1fec7b653a96eba0f0c46542a8a7fbda825ca9efa0b3632dfbe5c1e628
    25bc7b5082915d0b7e5bb81930f25cca9076964c33513a39aa105b6ee06914af
    581ad1dc881b1486b4024b9417
    
    • Nonce: 400c48a557be10254d235cf8c506e6fea418a26c93de1f05
    • Authentication tag: 6914af581ad1dc881b1486b4024b9417
  • Decrypted Payload:
    {
      "data": "this is a signed message",
      "exp": "2039-01-01T00:00:00+00:00"
    }
    • Key used in this example (hex-encoded):
      707172737475767778797a7b7c7d7e7f808182838485868788898a8b8c8d8e8f  
      
  • Footer:
    Paragon Initiative Enterprises
    

PASETO Example 2

v2.public.eyJleHAiOiIyMDM5LTAxLTAxVDAwOjAwOjAwKzAwOjAwIiwiZGF0YSI6InRoaXMgaXMgYSBzaWduZWQgbWVzc2FnZSJ91gC7-jCWsN3mv4uJaZxZp0btLJgcyVwL-svJD7f4IHyGteKe3HTLjHYTGHI1MtCqJ-ESDLNoE7otkIzamFskCA

This decodes to:

  • Version: v2
  • Purpose: public (public-key digital signature)
  • Payload:
    {
      "data": "this is a signed message",
      "exp": "2039-01-01T00:00:00+00:00"
    }
  • Signature (hex-encoded):
    d600bbfa3096b0dde6bf8b89699c59a746ed2c981cc95c0bfacbc90fb7f8207c
    86b5e29edc74cb8c761318723532d0aa27e1120cb36813ba2d908cda985b2408
    
  • Public key (hex-encoded):
    11324397f535562178d53ff538e49d5a162242970556b4edd950c87c7d86648a
    

To learn what each version means, please see this page in the documentation.

JWT

An example JWT (taken from JWT.io) might look like this:

eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkpvaG4gRG9lIiwiYWRtaW4iOnRydWV9.TJVA95OrM7E2cBab30RMHrHDcEfxjoYZgeFONFh7HgQ 

This decodes to:

Header:

{
  "alg": "HS256",
  "typ": "JWT"
}

Body:

{
  "sub": "1234567890",
  "name": "John Doe",
  "admin": true
}

Signature:

TJVA95OrM7E2cBab30RMHrHDcEfxjoYZgeFONFh7HgQ

Motivation

As you can see, with JWT, you get to specify an alg header. There are a lot of options to choose from (including none).

There have been ways to exploit JWT libraries by replacing RS256 with HS256 and using the known public key as the HMAC-SHA256 key, thereby allowing arbitrary token forgery.

With PASETO, your options are version and a purpose. There are two possible values for purpose:

  • local -- shared-key encryption (symmetric-key, AEAD)
  • public -- public-key digital signatures (asymmetric-key)

PASETO only allows you to use authenticated modes.

Regardless of the purpose selected, the header (and an optional footer, which is always cleartext but base64url-encoded) is included in the signature or authentication tag.

Installation

To install the library use the following command:

$ go get -u github.com/o1egl/paseto

Usage

This library contains a predefined JsonToken struct for using as payload, but you are free to use any data types and structs you want.

During the encoding process, a payload of type string and []byte is used without transformation. For other data types, the library encodes the payload to JSON.

Create token using symmetric key (local mode):

symmetricKey := []byte("YELLOW SUBMARINE, BLACK WIZARDRY") // Must be 32 bytes
now := time.Now()
exp := now.Add(24 * time.Hour)
nbt := now

jsonToken := paseto.JSONToken{
        Audience:   "test",
        Issuer:     "test_service",
        Jti:        "123",
        Subject:    "test_subject",
        IssuedAt:   now,
        Expiration: exp,
        NotBefore:  nbt,
        }
// Add custom claim    to the token    
jsonToken.Set("data", "this is a signed message")
footer := "some footer"

// Encrypt data
token, err := paseto.Encrypt(symmetricKey, jsonToken, footer)
// token = "v2.local.E42A2iMY9SaZVzt-WkCi45_aebky4vbSUJsfG45OcanamwXwieieMjSjUkgsyZzlbYt82miN1xD-X0zEIhLK_RhWUPLZc9nC0shmkkkHS5Exj2zTpdNWhrC5KJRyUrI0cupc5qrctuREFLAvdCgwZBjh1QSgBX74V631fzl1IErGBgnt2LV1aij5W3hw9cXv4gtm_jSwsfee9HZcCE0sgUgAvklJCDO__8v_fTY7i_Regp5ZPa7h0X0m3yf0n4OXY9PRplunUpD9uEsXJ_MTF5gSFR3qE29eCHbJtRt0FFl81x-GCsQ9H9701TzEjGehCC6Bhw.c29tZSBmb290ZXI"

// Decrypt data
var newJsonToken paseto.JSONToken
var newFooter string
err := paseto.Decrypt(token, symmetricKey, &newJsonToken, &newFooter)

Create token using asymetric key (public mode):

b, _ := hex.DecodeString("b4cbfb43df4ce210727d953e4a713307fa19bb7d9f85041438d9e11b942a37741eb9dbbbbc047c03fd70604e0071f0987e16b28b757225c11f00415d0e20b1a2")
privateKey := ed25519.PrivateKey(b)

b, _ = hex.DecodeString("1eb9dbbbbc047c03fd70604e0071f0987e16b28b757225c11f00415d0e20b1a2")
publicKey := ed25519.PublicKey(b)

// or create a new keypair 
// publicKey, privateKey, err := ed25519.GenerateKey(nil)

jsonToken := paseto.JSONToken{
        Expiration: time.Now().Add(24 * time.Hour),
        }
        
// Add custom claim    to the token    
jsonToken.Set("data", "this is a signed message")
footer := "some footer"

// Sign data
token, err := paseto.Sign(privateKey, jsonToken, footer)
// token = "v2.public.eyJkYXRhIjoidGhpcyBpcyBhIHNpZ25lZCBtZXNzYWdlIiwiZXhwIjoiMjAxOC0wMy0xMlQxOTowODo1NCswMTowMCJ9Ojv0uXlUNXSFhR88KXb568LheLRdeGy2oILR3uyOM_-b7r7i_fX8aljFYUiF-MRr5IRHMBcWPtM0fmn9SOd6Aw.c29tZSBmb290ZXI"

// Verify data
var newJsonToken paseto.JSONToken
var newFooter string
err := paseto.Verify(token, publicKey, &newJsonToken, &newFooter)

Use Parse() function to parse all supported token versions:

IMPORTANT: Version 1 of the protocol is deprecated

b, err := hex.DecodeString("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")
block, _ := pem.Decode(b)
rsaPubInterface, err := x509.ParsePKIXPublicKey(block.Bytes)
v1PublicKey := rsaPubInterface.(*rsa.PublicKey)

b, _ = hex.DecodeString("1eb9dbbbbc047c03fd70604e0071f0987e16b28b757225c11f00415d0e20b1a2")
v2PublicKey := ed25519.PublicKey(b)


var payload JSONToken
var footer string
version, err := paseto.Parse(token, &payload, &footer, symmetricKey, map[paseto.Version]crypto.PublicKey{paseto.V1: v1PublicKey, paseto.V2: v2PublicKey})

For more information see *_test.go files.

Benchmarks

MacBook Pro (15-inch, 2018) CPU: 2,6 GHz Intel Core i7 RAM: 32 GB 2400 MHz DDR4 OS: macOS 10.14.6 GO: 1.13.7

$ go test -bench . -benchmem

Benchmark_V2_JSONToken_Encrypt-12         137578              8532 ns/op            4186 B/op         59 allocs/op
Benchmark_V2_JSONToken_Decrypt-12         139309              7970 ns/op            2048 B/op         63 allocs/op
Benchmark_V2_JSONToken_Sign-12             21598             55817 ns/op            4426 B/op         60 allocs/op
Benchmark_V2_JSONToken_Verify-12            8772            132142 ns/op            2528 B/op         64 allocs/op
Benchmark_V2_String_Encrypt-12            544958              2051 ns/op            1176 B/op         23 allocs/op
Benchmark_V2_String_Decrypt-12           1000000              1054 ns/op             568 B/op         18 allocs/op
Benchmark_V2_String_Sign-12                25144             47645 ns/op            1144 B/op         23 allocs/op
Benchmark_V2_String_Verify-12               9408            125524 ns/op             744 B/op         18 allocs/op

Supported PASETO Versions

Version 2

Version 2 (the recommended version by the specification) is fully supported.

Version 1

Version 1 (the compatibility version) is fully supported.

Issues
  • Assymetric woes

    Assymetric woes

    Symmetric/local keys work great, however...

            v2 := paseto.NewV2()
    	_, privateKey, err := ed25519.GenerateKey(nil)
    
    	jsonToken := paseto.JSONToken{
    		Expiration: time.Now().Add(24 * time.Hour),
    		Subject:    "Foo",
    		Audience:   "Bar",
    		Issuer:     "This guy",
    		IssuedAt:   time.Now(),
    	}
    
    	// Add custom claim    to the token
    	jsonToken.Set("data", "this is a signed message")
    	footer := "some footer"
    
    	// Sign data
    	token, err := v2.Sign(privateKey, &jsonToken, &footer)
    

    Gives a err of incorrect private key type. What am I doing wrong here?

    opened by delaneyj 6
  • example on readme fails, can't unmarshal token data to the given type of value.

    example on readme fails, can't unmarshal token data to the given type of value.

    When running the example in the README, the local mode decryption step fails with error "can't unmarshal token data to the given type of value". Right now the library seems unusable.

    opened by liminalitythree 4
  • Changes for 1.13

    Changes for 1.13

    Removed dependency on github.com/pkg/errors. Updated golang.org/x/crypto/ed25519 to crypto/ed25519. Updated test files.

    These are api breaking changes, error checking and ed25519 code dependent on this version of paseto will need to be updated.

    opened by sharonjl 3
  • Can't extend JSONToken

    Can't extend JSONToken

    I want to add my own claim to the JSONToken. I tried to use

    type MyToken struct {
    	paseto.JSONToken
    	Groups []string `json:"groups"`
    }
    

    but it doesn't work (field does not appear in my token). There is JSONToken.Set, but it only works with strings.

    opened by ikorolev93 2
  • Should decryption and verification operations mandate that footer matches an expected value?

    Should decryption and verification operations mandate that footer matches an expected value?

    In the Paseto documentation, there are two conflicting stances on how one should use the token's footer:

    In the former case, the receiver knows and will tolerate only one footer. In the latter case, the receiver only knows the schema of the footer, but can't know its value; rather, the receiver needs to read the value to know how to proceed.

    This library doesn't take either approach to heart: neither the decryption nor verification functions accept an expected footer value to match, nor is there a means to extract a footer first to guide the rest of the decryption or verification process.

    What is the author's take on the role of the token footer?

    opened by seh 2
  • how to get version 2.0.0

    how to get version 2.0.0

    Hi, try to install via command go get -u github.com/o1egl/paseto, but I can only get version 1.0.0, using go get -u github.com/o1egl/[email protected], it said invalid version: unknown revision v2.0.0. Am I the only one who run into this? Thanks.

    opened by allanwakes 1
  • How create private/public key ?

    How create private/public key ?

    How i can create private/public key like from README.md - "Create token using asymetric key (public mode)" and use like files (id_ed25519, id_ed25519.pub) b, _ := hex.DecodeString("b4cbfb43df4ce210727d953e4a713307fa19bb7d9f85041438d9e11b942a37741eb9dbbbbc047c03fd70604e0071f0987e16b28b757225c11f00415d0e20b1a2") privateKey := ed25519.PrivateKey(b)

    b, _ = hex.DecodeString("1eb9dbbbbc047c03fd70604e0071f0987e16b28b757225c11f00415d0e20b1a2") publicKey := ed25519.PublicKey(b)

    opened by lotos2512 1
  • naming json tags in struct claims breaks unmarshalling

    naming json tags in struct claims breaks unmarshalling

    Hi,

    Thanks for the package!

    I believe I found a problem with custom claims, specifically when using a struct as custom claim with field named via json tags.

    To reproduce:

    package main
    
    import (
    	"encoding/base64"
    	"encoding/json"
    	"fmt"
    	"log"
    
    	"github.com/o1egl/paseto/v2"
    )
    
    type someClaim struct {
    	Foo string `json:"foox"`
    }
    
    func main() {
    	secret, _ := base64.StdEncoding.DecodeString("vQVOM5M6dUftMNhwkvjTX3ObFupqzRrYMSc/IM9hZ2M=")
    
    	tokenIn := &paseto.JSONToken{}
    	tokenIn.Set("someclaim", &someClaim{Foo: "nonempty"})
    
    	tokenInStr, _ := paseto.Encrypt(secret, tokenIn, "")
    
    	tokenOut := &paseto.JSONToken{}
    	paseto.Decrypt(tokenInStr, secret, tokenOut, nil)
    
    	var someClaim someClaim
    	tokenOut.Get("someclaim", &someClaim)
    	out, _ := json.Marshal(someClaim)
    	fmt.Printf("claim: %s\n", out)
    	
    	tokenOutStr, _ := tokenOut.MarshalJSON()
    	fmt.Printf("token: %s\n", tokenOutStr)
    }
    

    Expected:

    claim: {"foox":"nonempty"}
    token: {"someclaim":{"foox":"nonempty"}}
    

    Got:

    claim: {"foox":""}
    token: {"someclaim":{"foox":"nonempty"}}
    

    Removing the json:"foox" tag fixes the issue, but this is of course not ideal.

    Cheers

    bug 
    opened by costela 1
  • go get retrieves version 1

    go get retrieves version 1

    Using go get retrieves version 1 of the library rather than version 2. Is version 2 available like other versioned packages? I tried adding the version number to the package, but no luck.

    Thanks

    opened by rpwatkins 1
  • SECURITY: Examples, default usage, `JSONToken` fail to check `Expiration`, `NotBefore` by default.

    SECURITY: Examples, default usage, `JSONToken` fail to check `Expiration`, `NotBefore` by default.

    Given that PASETO is designed for "Resistance to Implementation Error / Misuse", I'm surprised the examples don't cover calling JSONToken.Validate, nor does JSONToken.UnmarshalJSON do this on it's own.

    The documentation does indicate that the standard claims are optional, which would mean that calling the default set of validation functions during JSONToken.Unmarshal might break the current usage patterns for some people. That said, the documented usage goes through the trouble of setting an Expiration that is never verified.

    This isn't too hard to fix, but I was curious if the maintainers are open to something more intrusive (breaking use of JSONToken without an Expiration, and NotBefore date, and ensuring UnmarshalJSON checks this) to prevent mistakes, or if just updating the documentation would be preferable.

    Wanted to open this issue for discussion.

    opened by jasonvmiller 1
  • Unable to verify data

    Unable to verify data

    I have my token, symmetric key and footer string passed

    v2 := paseto.NewV2()
    err := v2.Decrypt(token, symmetricKey, &newJSONToken, &newFooter)
    

    But how do I verify data?

    I found there is newJSONToken.Validate() function which basically returns an error if there is any.

    I have a couple of question for this library:

    1. Is verification done by verifying "key" and "value" set using "Set" method on JSONToken?
    2. Can "token" generated be altered like "JWT" and pass modified or tampered data?
    3. Can "token" generated using "paseto" be decrypted and viewed like "JWT"?

    Thanks

    opened by rebootcode 1
  • is it still an active project?

    is it still an active project?

    We at awesome-go noticed that the project has been without commits for over 1 year, is the project active?

    ref: https://github.com/avelino/awesome-go/issues/4016

    opened by avelino 1
  • Keys with associated versions

    Keys with associated versions

    As alluded to in #32, keys should to be strongly bound to their parameter choices to prevent algorithm confusion attacks (so byte arrays or similar shouldn't be accepted). From the PASETO spec:

    PASETO Cryptography Key Requirements

    Cryptography keys in PASETO are defined as both the raw key material and its parameter choices, not just the raw key material.

    PASETO implementations MUST enforce some logical separation between different key types; especially when the raw key material is the same (i.e. a 256-bit opaque blob).

    Arbitrary strings (or byte arrays, or equivalent language constructs) MUST NOT be accepted as a key in any PASETO library, [...]

    I've opted to refactor the core PASETO operations into methods associated with each specific key (e.g. V2SymmetricKey has implementations for encrypt, decrypt involving its raw material). This means that the version level methods just need to do a type assertion checking that the given key matches the version, before deferring down to the key specific implementation.

    Fixes #32

    opened by aidantwoods 0
  • Feature: custom error type ErrTokenExpiredError

    Feature: custom error type ErrTokenExpiredError

    This changes the token_validator to return a ErrTokenExpiredError instead of ErrTokenValidationError. This allows us to check for token expiration which differs from a regular token error. (e.g. trigger a refresh).

    opened by hazcod 1
  • Bind Keys to Version and Purpose

    Bind Keys to Version and Purpose

    https://github.com/o1egl/paseto/blob/f1000e3be0ce1d221c08cebbe13e184414a092f6/v2.go#L78

    https://github.com/o1egl/paseto/blob/f1000e3be0ce1d221c08cebbe13e184414a092f6/v2.go#L138

    See https://github.com/paseto-standard/paseto-spec/blob/master/docs/02-Implementation-Guide/03-Algorithm-Lucidity.md

    Right now, byte arrays are accepted by this API. There's no mechanism to prevent a user from using a v2 public key as a v2 local key.

    opened by paragonie-security 0
Releases(v2.0.0)
  • v2.0.0(Jan 18, 2020)

    • Added ability to store/load values of any type as claim in JSONToken
    • New top level Encrypt(), Decrypt(), Sign() and Verify() functions that use V2 as default protocol
    Source code(tar.gz)
    Source code(zip)
Owner
Oleg Lobanov
Oleg Lobanov
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