Kepler (Kubernetes-based Efficient Power Level Exporter) uses eBPF to probe energy related system stats and exports as Prometheus metrics

Overview

kepler

Kepler (Kubernetes Efficient Power Level Exporter) uses eBPF to probe energy related system stats and exports as Prometheus metrics

Architecture

Architecture

Requirement

Kernel 4.18+, Cgroup V2

Installation and Configuration for Prometheus

Prerequisites

Need access to a Kubernetes cluster.

Deploy the Kepler exporter

Deploying the Kepler exporter as a daemonset to run on all nodes. The following deployment will also create a service listening on port 9102.

# kubectl create -f manifests/kubernetes/deployment.yaml 

Deploy the Prometheus operator and the whole monitoring stack

  1. Clone the kube-prometheus project to your local folder.
# git clone https://github.com/prometheus-operator/kube-prometheus
  1. Deploy the whole monitoring stack using the config in the manifests directory. Create the namespace and CRDs, and then wait for them to be available before creating the remaining resources
# cd kube-prometheus
# kubectl apply --server-side -f manifests/setup
# until kubectl get servicemonitors --all-namespaces ; do date; sleep 1; echo ""; done
# kubectl apply -f manifests/kubernetes/

Configure Prometheus to scrape Kepler-exporter endpoints.

# cd ../kepler
# kubectl create -f manifests/kubernetes/keplerExporter-serviceMonitor.yaml

Sample Grafana dashboard

Sample Grafana dashboard

Comments
  • Cannot start up exporter with Kind

    Cannot start up exporter with Kind

    Describe the bug Try kepler with Kind, but the exporter cannot startup, get below errors in logs: not sure if the Kind is not in the support list.

    [[email protected] kepler]# k -n kepler logs -f kepler-exporter-kgvdl
    panic: runtime error: index out of range [16] with length 16
    
    goroutine 1 [running]:
    github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/pkg/power/rapl/source.mapPackageAndCore()
    	/opt/app-root/src/github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/pkg/power/rapl/source/msr_util.go:88 +0x234
    github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/pkg/power/rapl/source.InitUnits()
    	/opt/app-root/src/github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/pkg/power/rapl/source/msr_util.go:147 +0x1d
    github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/pkg/power/rapl/source.(*PowerMSR).IsSupported(...)
    	/opt/app-root/src/github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/pkg/power/rapl/source/msr.go:22
    github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/pkg/power/rapl.init.0()
    	/opt/app-root/src/github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/pkg/power/rapl/power.go:53 +0xdb
    

    To Reproduce Steps to reproduce the behavior:

    Additional context Add any other context about the problem here.

    opened by vincent-pli 28
  • Make kepler metrics conform to the Prometheus metrics guideline

    Make kepler metrics conform to the Prometheus metrics guideline

    Why this PR is needed? Currently it is hard to understand all the prometheus metrics and even know which are the metrics that we are exporting... The metric naming is complex and does not follow the prometheus metric name guideline. More details are written in the issue #286

    What this PR does? This PR updates the prometheus metrics along with some changes to enable the new metrics.

    Additionally, Prometheus suggest to only report metrics in joules instead of watts. Giving that, we don't need to report the current power consumption since it can be calculated using promQL. There are more details about this in the issue #286

    For the sake of compatibility with other modules, we keep some deprecated metrics and will remove it later.

    Additional comments The changes are carefully separated in different commits to be easier to review.

    I will update the Grafana dashboard in another PR. There are already many updates in this PR....

    Signed-off-by: Marcelo Amaral [email protected]

    enhancement 
    opened by marceloamaral 22
  • [WIP][don't merge] Dev:1st impl for integration test

    [WIP][don't merge] Dev:1st impl for integration test

    Details for this PR e2e folder with end to end testing, will run with two models, base on environment kepler_address.

    1. build kepler during test process and run it targets on local.
    2. run test case targets on cluster after cluster port forwarding.

    Signed-off-by: Sam Yuan [email protected]

    opened by SamYuan1990 22
  • dial error: dial unix /tmp/estimator.sock: connect: no such file or directory

    dial error: dial unix /tmp/estimator.sock: connect: no such file or directory

    Describe the bug After rolling over the daemonset to the latest image on quay.io registry (sha256:01a86339a8acb566ddcee848640ed4419ad0bffac98529e9b489a3dcb1e671f5) there is the message from title being shown constantly. Example output of the problem:

    2022/08/25 12:30:53 Kubelet Read: map[<pod-list-trimmed>]
    2022/08/25 12:30:53 dial error: dial unix /tmp/estimator.sock: connect: no such file or directory
    energy from pod (0 processes): name: <some-pod> namespace: <some-namespace>
    

    Is the estimator.sock expected to be missing in current state of the project?

    Each node is reporting the same error. As a sidenote, since then nodes are not logging any new kepler metrics to Prometheus. I am in no place to suggest that these are connected issues and the missing metrics might be some other local issue, but there's that.

    To Reproduce Steps to reproduce the behavior:

    1. Run kepler on OpenShift 4.11
    2. Check kepler-exporter container logs for presence of '/tmp/estimator.sock: connect: no such file or directory'

    Expected behavior /tmp/estimator.sock error is not reported.

    Desktop (please complete the following information):

    • OS: RedHat CoreOS 4.11
    opened by Feelas 19
  • Exclude VM node when deploy kepler exporter

    Exclude VM node when deploy kepler exporter

    Currently kepler exporter cannot get data successfully on VM node. With this PR change, kepler exporter will not deploy on VM nodes. Only bare metal nodes will be scheduled for kepler deployment.

    Signed-off-by: Hao, Ruomeng [email protected]

    opened by ruomengh 17
  • Energy consumption of CPU is 0

    Energy consumption of CPU is 0

    Describe the bug Checking "Pod Current Energy Consumption" on Grafana dashboard, CPU energy consumption of each pod is 0. Checking Prometheus, "pod_curr_energy_in_core_millijoule" of all pods are 0. "Total" and "DRAM" have data but "CPU" is 0.

    The issue exists on both RHEL8.6 and Ubuntu 22.04 host.

    opened by ruomengh 16
  • Update Grafana dashboards with the new container metrics

    Update Grafana dashboards with the new container metrics

    Why this PR is needed? PR #287 will update Prometheus metrics and affect the current Grafana dashboard. Where the new metrics will report energy per container and have more meaningful names. More details are written in issue #286.

    Currently, it is difficult to understand all the queries in the existing Grafana dashboard. There are some constant values ​​that are not obvious and some queries that are wrong. For example:

    The sum_over_time(pod_curr_energy_in_core_millijoule{pod_namespace=\"$namespace\", pod_name=\"$pod\"}[24h])*15/3/3600000000 metric: sum_over_time sum the metric within the timeframe (the value in the square brackets) by getting a cumulative number from the gauge. The problem here is the granularity, we know the gauge is reported every 3s. So the query will not sum the aggregation across the 3s. Instead of a gauge, a counter should be used, e.g., pod_aggr_energy_in_core_millijoule, but of course it won't make sense to use sum_over_time. If we use the counter, to get the kw*h, we will need to use the increase function:

    1W*s = 1J and 1J = (1/3600000)kWh = 0.000000277777777777778
    (sum(increase(pod_aggr_energy_in_core_millijoule{}[1h])))*0.000000277777777777778
    

    So, in Prometheus, metrics are based on averages and approximations. In fact, the increase function takes the average of the time period and multiplies it by the interval.

    Also, in case we are using a counter, division by 3 makes no sense, as the rate function already returns values ​​per second... and the increase just get the rate and multiply by the interval.

    Additionally, I didn't understand the multiplication by 15 and the division by 3600000000...

    Another example: The rate(pod_curr_energy_in_gpu_millijoule{}[1m])/3 metric. The previous metric pod_curr_energy_in_gpu_millijoule was a gauge, and rate over a gauge metric doesn't make sense... Again, it would make sense to use the counter pod_aggr_energy_in_core_millijoule, but not divide by 3....

    What this PR does? This PR updates the Grafana dashboard with the new metrics and the properly queries.

    For the query that will return watt, we will have:

    sum without (command, container_name)(
        rate(kepler_container_package_joules_total{}[5s])
    )
    

    And another query will return kWh per day: Note that, to calculate the kwh we need to multiply the kilowatts by the hours of daily use, therefore we will count the how many hours within a day the container is running.

    sum by (pod_name, container_name) (
      (increase(kepler_container_package_joules_total{}[1h]) * $watt_per_second_to_kWh)
      *
      (count_over_time(kepler_container_package_joules_total{}[24h]) /
        count_over_time(kepler_container_package_joules_total{}[1h])
      )
    )
    

    I have also fixed other minor issues in the dashboard, such as

    • have the All value in the namespace and pod variables
    • make the Coal, Natural Gas and Petroleum Coefficient transparent and editable

    Additional comments image

    Signed-off-by: Marcelo Amaral [email protected]

    bug enhancement 
    opened by marceloamaral 16
  • Fix CI error

    Fix CI error

    resolve https://github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/issues/193

    change log:

    add commit push condition for main branch. move test coverage for default unit test.(to avoid test coverage based on specific build tag as bcc) bug fix for test coverage file missing.

    Signed-off-by: Sam Yuan [email protected]

    opened by SamYuan1990 16
  • VM: all node / pod energy report 0 (again..)

    VM: all node / pod energy report 0 (again..)

    Describe the bug A clear and concise description of what the bug is.

    after use latest update with a few enhancement, my pod/node report energy become 0 again.. switch to v0.3 I can see the data correctly reported ,...

    latest

      0     0    0     0    0     0      0      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--     0kepler_node_energy_stat{cpu_architecture="Haswell",node_block_devices_used="0",node_curr_bytes_read="0",node_curr_bytes_writes="0",node_curr_cache_miss="0",node_curr_container_cpu_usage_seconds_total="0",node_curr_container_memory_working_set_bytes="0",node_curr_cpu_cycles="0",node_curr_cpu_instr="0",node_curr_cpu_time="0",node_curr_energy_in_core_joule="0",node_curr_energy_in_dram_joule="0",node_curr_energy_in_gpu_joule="0",node_curr_energy_in_other_joule="0",node_curr_energy_in_pkg_joule="0",node_curr_energy_in_uncore_joule="0",node_name="jitest40"} 0
    
    

    v0.3

    # TYPE node_curr_energy_in_core_joule gauge
    node_curr_energy_in_core_joule{instance="jitest40"} 0.026
    # HELP node_curr_energy_in_dram_joule node_ current energy consumption in dram (joule)
    # TYPE node_curr_energy_in_dram_joule gauge
    node_curr_energy_in_dram_joule{instance="jitest40"} 0.708
    # HELP node_curr_energy_in_gpu_joule node_ current energy consumption in gpu (joule)
    # TYPE node_curr_energy_in_gpu_joule gauge
    node_curr_energy_in_gpu_joule{instance="jitest40"} 0
    # HELP node_curr_energy_in_other_joule node_ current energy consumption in other (joule)
    # TYPE node_curr_energy_in_other_joule gauge
    node_curr_energy_in_other_joule{instance="jitest40"} 0
    # HELP node_curr_energy_in_pkg_joule node_ current energy consumption in pkg (joule)
    # TYPE node_curr_energy_in_pkg_joule gauge
    node_curr_energy_in_pkg_joule{instance="jitest40"} 0.026
    # HELP node_curr_energy_in_uncore_joule node_ current energy consumption in uncore (joule)
    # TYPE node_curr_energy_in_uncore_joule gauge
    node_curr_energy_in_uncore_joule{instance="jitest40"} 0
    # HELP node_curr_energy_joule node_ current energy consumption (joule)
    # TYPE node_curr_energy_joule gauge
    node_curr_energy_joule{instance="jitest40"} 0.026
    
    

    To Reproduce Steps to reproduce the behavior:

    1. Go to '...'
    2. Click on '....'
    3. Scroll down to '....'
    4. See error

    Expected behavior A clear and concise description of what you expected to happen.

    Screenshots If applicable, add screenshots to help explain your problem.

    Desktop (please complete the following information):

    • OS: [e.g. iOS]
    • Browser [e.g. chrome, safari]
    • Version [e.g. 22]

    Smartphone (please complete the following information):

    • Device: [e.g. iPhone6]
    • OS: [e.g. iOS8.1]
    • Browser [e.g. stock browser, safari]
    • Version [e.g. 22]

    Additional context Add any other context about the problem here.

    opened by jichenjc 15
  • getKernelVersion doesn't work at all

    getKernelVersion doesn't work at all

    Describe the bug A clear and concise description of what the bug is.

    https://github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/blob/main/pkg/config/config.go#L65

    paste those to https://go.dev/play/ and run it

    package main
    
    import (
    	"encoding/json"
    	"fmt"
    
    	"github.com/zcalusic/sysinfo"
    )
    
    func main() {
    
    	var si sysinfo.SysInfo
    
    	si.GetSysInfo()
    
    	data, err := json.MarshalIndent(&si, "", "  ")
    	if err == nil {
    		var result map[string]map[string]string
    		if err = json.Unmarshal(data, &result); err != nil {
    			fmt.Println("----")
    			fmt.Println(err)
    			fmt.Println("----")
    		}
    	}
    	fmt.Println("done")
    }
    
    
    ----
    json: cannot unmarshal number into Go value of type string
    ----
    done
    
    

    To Reproduce Steps to reproduce the behavior:

    1. Go to '...'
    2. Click on '....'
    3. Scroll down to '....'
    4. See error

    Expected behavior A clear and concise description of what you expected to happen.

    Screenshots If applicable, add screenshots to help explain your problem.

    Desktop (please complete the following information):

    • OS: [e.g. iOS]
    • Browser [e.g. chrome, safari]
    • Version [e.g. 22]

    Smartphone (please complete the following information):

    • Device: [e.g. iPhone6]
    • OS: [e.g. iOS8.1]
    • Browser [e.g. stock browser, safari]
    • Version [e.g. 22]

    Additional context Add any other context about the problem here.

    opened by jichenjc 15
  • implement model-based power estimator

    implement model-based power estimator

    This PR introduces a dynamic way to estimate the power by Estimator class (pkg/model/estimator.go).

    • the model is supposed to be dynamically downloaded to the folder data/model
    • python program running as a child process to apply the trained model to the read value via unix domain socket
    • model class is implemented in python now supporting .h5 of keras model, .sav of scikit-learn model, and simple ratio model computed metric importance by correlation to power

    There are additional three dependent points to integrate this class to the Kepler

    1. initialize in exporter.go
    errCh := make(chan error)
    estimator := &model.Estimator{
       Err: errCh,
    }
    // start python program (pkg/model/py/estimator.py) 
    // it will listen for PowerRequest by the unix domain socket "/tmp/estimator.sock"
    go estimator.StartPyEstimator()
    defer estimator.Destroy()
    
    1. call GetPower function in reader.go
    // it will create PowerRequest and send to estimator.py via the unix domain socket
    (e *Estimator) GetPower(modelName string, xCols []string, xValues [][]float32, corePower, dramPower, gpuPower, otherPower []float32) []float32 {} 
    
    • modelName refers to the model folder in /data/model which contains metadata.json giving the rest details of model such as model file, feature engineering pkl files, features, error, so on. (auto-select the minimum error model if it is empty, "")
    • xCols refers to features
    • xValues refers to values of each features for each pods [no. pods x no. features]
    • corePower refers to core power for each package (leave it empty if not available)
    • dramPower, gpuPower, otherPower same to corePower
    1. put initial models to data/model of container folder (can be done by statically add in the docker image or deployment manifest volumes)

    check example use in pkg/model/estimator_test.go

    If you are agree with this direction, we can modify estimator.py to

    • support other modeling classes
    • select the applicable features from available features
    • connect to kepler-model-server to update the model

    Signed-off-by: Sunyanan Choochotkaew [email protected]

    opened by sunya-ch 15
  • why use dummy Impl of power component instead of estimated?

    why use dummy Impl of power component instead of estimated?

    Is your feature request related to a problem? Please describe. A clear and concise description of what the problem is. Ex. I'm always frustrated when [...]

    we are using dummy if no RAPL or MSR https://github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/blob/main/pkg/power/components/power.go#L60

    but we do have estimated https://github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/blob/main/pkg/power/components/source/estimate.go

    so from name, same estimated is suitable than dummy? Describe the solution you'd like A clear and concise description of what you want to happen.

    Describe alternatives you've considered A clear and concise description of any alternative solutions or features you've considered.

    Additional context Add any other context or screenshots about the feature request here.

    opened by jichenjc 3
  • Consume hardware power metrics from Hardware Sentry

    Consume hardware power metrics from Hardware Sentry

    Is your feature request related to a problem? Please describe. Solutions exist to collect power metrics, and even semantic conventions. It would be nice if Kepler would leverage that.

    Describe the solution you'd like Example of a solution that collects hardware power metrics: Hardware Sentry. It's free but it's not yet open-source.

    It would be greatly beneficial to Kepler if it could use Hardware Sentry as a source for hardware power metrics (notably hw_host_energy_joules_total and hw_energy_joules_total{hw_type="cpu|gpu|memory|physical_disk|network"}).

    Also, OpenTelemetry have defined semantic conventions for hardware, including for power and energy metrics. Kepler should follow these conventions.

    Describe alternatives you've considered None, really.

    Additional context I am the CEO of the company who develops Hardware Sentry. We're pushing for solutions that help companies reduce the carbon footprint of their data centers (notably with temperature optimization). I'm very happy to discover Kepler and sustainable-computing-io!

    opened by bertysentry 5
  • containerIDToContainerInfo should be updated to reflect removed container?

    containerIDToContainerInfo should be updated to reflect removed container?

    Describe the bug A clear and concise description of what the bug is.

    https://github.com/sustainable-computing-io/kepler/blob/main/pkg/cgroup/resolve_container.go#L56

    seems this defined somewhere and updated when creation seems no place to update it when pod got destroyed?

    To Reproduce Steps to reproduce the behavior:

    1. Go to '...'
    2. Click on '....'
    3. Scroll down to '....'
    4. See error

    Expected behavior A clear and concise description of what you expected to happen.

    Screenshots If applicable, add screenshots to help explain your problem.

    Desktop (please complete the following information):

    • OS: [e.g. iOS]
    • Browser [e.g. chrome, safari]
    • Version [e.g. 22]

    Smartphone (please complete the following information):

    • Device: [e.g. iPhone6]
    • OS: [e.g. iOS8.1]
    • Browser [e.g. stock browser, safari]
    • Version [e.g. 22]

    Additional context Add any other context about the problem here.

    opened by jichenjc 0
  • e2e tests for Kepler, estimator, and model server

    e2e tests for Kepler, estimator, and model server

    Is your feature request related to a problem? Please describe. Having all of the components e2e tested on baremetal and VM (especially on CI)

    Describe the solution you'd like The tests should verify that:

    • [ ] all the components are configured correctly, up and running
    • [ ] the models (ebpf, cgroup, etc) can be trained and updated online
    opened by rootfs 6
  • Build manifest deployment with options

    Build manifest deployment with options

    Is your feature request related to a problem? Please describe. A clear and concise description of what the problem is. Ex. I'm always frustrated when [...]

    • The current manifest build contains duplicating points separately for plain Kubernetes, OpenShift, VM, BM
    • Adding integration of estimator sidecar and model server requires combination to the above duplication.
    • Some setting such as image, namespace of users in rolebinding can be done more properly by kustomize instead of sed or manual change.

    Describe the solution you'd like A clear and concise description of what you want to happen.

    The solution is to build manifest based on the same base defined patching and additional resources.

    Describe alternatives you've considered A clear and concise description of any alternative solutions or features you've considered.

    Additional context Add any other context or screenshots about the feature request here.

    opened by sunya-ch 3
Releases(v0.4)
Owner
Sustainable Computing
Sustainable Computing
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