What is IPFS?
IPFS is a global, versioned, peer-to-peer filesystem. It combines good ideas from previous systems such as Git, BitTorrent, Kademlia, SFS, and the Web. It is like a single BitTorrent swarm, exchanging git objects. IPFS provides an interface as simple as the HTTP web, but with permanence built-in. You can also mount the world at /ipfs.
For more info see: https://docs.ipfs.io/introduction/overview/
Before opening an issue, consider using one of the following locations to ensure you are opening your thread in the right place:
- go-ipfs implementation bugs in this repo.
- Documentation issues in ipfs/docs issues.
- IPFS design in ipfs/specs issues.
- Exploration of new ideas in ipfs/notes issues.
- Ask questions and meet the rest of the community at the IPFS Forum.
Table of Contents
- Security Issues
- Getting Started
The IPFS protocol and its implementations are still in heavy development. This means that there may be problems in our protocols, or there may be mistakes in our implementations. And -- though IPFS is not production-ready yet -- many people are already running nodes in their machines. So we take security vulnerabilities very seriously. If you discover a security issue, please bring it to our attention right away!
If you find a vulnerability that may affect live deployments -- for example, by exposing a remote execution exploit -- please send your report privately to [email protected]. Please DO NOT file a public issue.
If the issue is a protocol weakness that cannot be immediately exploited or something not yet deployed, just discuss it openly.
The canonical download instructions for IPFS are over at: https://docs.ipfs.io/guides/guides/install/. It is highly recommended you follow those instructions if you are not interested in working on IPFS development.
IPFS can run on most Linux, macOS, and Windows systems. We recommend running it on a machine with at least 2 GB of RAM and 2 CPU cores (go-ipfs is highly parallel). On systems with less memory, it may not be completely stable.
If your system is resource-constrained, we recommend:
- Installing OpenSSL and rebuilding go-ipfs manually with
make build GOTAGS=openssl. See the download and compile section for more information on compiling go-ipfs.
- Initializing your daemon with
ipfs init --profile=lowpower
Install prebuilt packages
We host prebuilt binaries over at our distributions page.
- Click the blue "Download go-ipfs" on the right side of the page.
- Open/extract the archive.
ipfsto your path (
install.shcan do it for you).
You can also download go-ipfs from this project's GitHub releases page if you are unable to access ipfs.io.
From Linux package managers
In Arch Linux go-ipfs is available as go-ipfs package.
$ sudo pacman -S go-ipfs
Development version of go-ipfs is also on AUR under go-ipfs-git. You can install it using your favorite AUR Helper or manually from AUR.
For Linux and MacOSX you can use the purely functional package manager Nix:
$ nix-env -i ipfs
You can also install the Package by using its attribute name, which is also
GNU's functional package manager, Guix, also provides a go-ipfs package:
$ guix package -i go-ipfs
In solus, go-ipfs is available in the main repository as go-ipfs.
$ sudo eopkg install go-ipfs
You can also install it through the Solus software center.
With snap, in any of the supported Linux distributions:
$ sudo snap install ipfs
From Windows package managers
The package ipfs currently points to go-ipfs and is being maintained.
PS> choco install ipfs
go-ipfs in its 'extras' bucket.
PS> scoop bucket add extras PS> scoop install go-ipfs
Build from Source
go-ipfs's build system requires Go 1.14.4 and some standard POSIX build tools:
- GNU make
- GCC (or some other go compatible C Compiler) (optional)
To build without GCC, build with
make build CGO_ENABLED=0).
The build process for ipfs requires Go 1.14.4 or higher. If you don't have it: Download Go 1.14+.
You'll need to add Go's bin directories to your
$PATH environment variable e.g., by adding these lines to your
/etc/profile (for a system-wide installation) or
export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/go/bin export PATH=$PATH:$GOPATH/bin
(If you run into trouble, see the Go install instructions).
Download and Compile IPFS
$ git clone https://github.com/ipfs/go-ipfs.git $ cd go-ipfs $ make install
Alternatively, you can run
make build to build the go-ipfs binary (storing it in
cmd/ipfs/ipfs) without installing it.
NOTE: If you get an error along the lines of "fatal error: stdlib.h: No such file or directory", you're missing a C compiler. Either re-run
CGO_ENABLED=0 or install GCC.
Compiling for a different platform is as simple as running:
make build GOOS=myTargetOS GOARCH=myTargetArchitecture
To build go-ipfs with OpenSSL support, append
GOTAGS=openssl to your
make invocation. Building with OpenSSL should significantly reduce the background CPU usage on nodes that frequently make or receive new connections.
Note: OpenSSL requires CGO support and, by default, CGO is disabled when cross-compiling. To cross-compile with OpenSSL support, you must:
- Install a compiler toolchain for the target platform.
- Set the
- Separate instructions are available for building on Windows.
gitis required in order for
go getto fetch all dependencies.
- Package managers often contain out-of-date
golangpackages. Ensure that
go versionreports at least 1.10. See above for how to install go.
- If you are interested in development, please install the development dependencies as well.
- WARNING: Older versions of OSX FUSE (for Mac OS X) can cause kernel panics when mounting!- We strongly recommend you use the latest version of OSX FUSE. (See https://github.com/ipfs/go-ipfs/issues/177)
- For more details on setting up FUSE (so that you can mount the filesystem), see the docs folder.
- Shell command completion is available in
misc/completion/ipfs-completion.bash. Read docs/command-completion.md to learn how to install it.
- See the misc folder for how to connect IPFS to systemd or whatever init system your distro uses.
IPFS has an updating tool that can be accessed through
ipfs update. The tool is not installed alongside IPFS in order to keep that logic independent of the main codebase. To install
ipfs update, download it here.
Downloading IPFS builds using IPFS
List the available versions of go-ipfs:
$ ipfs cat /ipns/dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/versions
Then, to view available builds for a version from the previous command ($VERSION):
$ ipfs ls /ipns/dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/$VERSION
To download a given build of a version:
$ ipfs get /ipns/dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/$VERSION/go-ipfs_$VERSION_darwin-386.tar.gz # darwin 32-bit build $ ipfs get /ipns/dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/$VERSION/go-ipfs_$VERSION_darwin-amd64.tar.gz # darwin 64-bit build $ ipfs get /ipns/dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/$VERSION/go-ipfs_$VERSION_freebsd-amd64.tar.gz # freebsd 64-bit build $ ipfs get /ipns/dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/$VERSION/go-ipfs_$VERSION_linux-386.tar.gz # linux 32-bit build $ ipfs get /ipns/dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/$VERSION/go-ipfs_$VERSION_linux-amd64.tar.gz # linux 64-bit build $ ipfs get /ipns/dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/$VERSION/go-ipfs_$VERSION_linux-arm.tar.gz # linux arm build $ ipfs get /ipns/dist.ipfs.io/go-ipfs/$VERSION/go-ipfs_$VERSION_windows-amd64.zip # windows 64-bit build
See also: https://docs.ipfs.io/introduction/usage/
To start using IPFS, you must first initialize IPFS's config files on your system, this is done with
ipfs init. See
ipfs init --help for information on the optional arguments it takes. After initialization is complete, you can use
ipfs add and any of the other commands to explore!
Some things to try
Basic proof of 'ipfs working' locally:
echo "hello world" > hello ipfs add hello # This should output a hash string that looks something like: # QmT78zSuBmuS4z925WZfrqQ1qHaJ56DQaTfyMUF7F8ff5o ipfs cat <that hash>
ipfs - Global p2p merkle-dag filesystem. ipfs [<flags>] <command> [<arg>] ... SUBCOMMANDS BASIC COMMANDS init Initialize local IPFS configuration add <path> Add a file to IPFS cat <ref> Show IPFS object data get <ref> Download IPFS objects ls <ref> List links from an object refs <ref> List hashes of links from an object DATA STRUCTURE COMMANDS dag Interact with IPLD DAG nodes files Interact with files as if they were a unix filesystem object Interact with dag-pb objects (deprecated, use 'dag' or 'files') block Interact with raw blocks in the datastore ADVANCED COMMANDS daemon Start a long-running daemon process mount Mount an IPFS read-only mount point resolve Resolve any type of name name Publish and resolve IPNS names key Create and list IPNS name keypairs dns Resolve DNS links pin Pin objects to local storage repo Manipulate the IPFS repository stats Various operational stats p2p Libp2p stream mounting filestore Manage the filestore (experimental) NETWORK COMMANDS id Show info about IPFS peers bootstrap Add or remove bootstrap peers swarm Manage connections to the p2p network dht Query the DHT for values or peers ping Measure the latency of a connection diag Print diagnostics TOOL COMMANDS config Manage configuration version Show IPFS version information update Download and apply go-ipfs updates commands List all available commands cid Convert and discover properties of CIDs log Manage and show logs of running daemon Use 'ipfs <command> --help' to learn more about each command. ipfs uses a repository in the local file system. By default, the repo is located at ~/.ipfs. To change the repo location, set the $IPFS_PATH environment variable: export IPFS_PATH=/path/to/ipfsrepo
Running IPFS inside Docker
An IPFS docker image is hosted at hub.docker.com/r/ipfs/go-ipfs. To make files visible inside the container you need to mount a host directory with the
-v option to docker. Choose a directory that you want to use to import/export files from IPFS. You should also choose a directory to store IPFS files that will persist when you restart the container.
export ipfs_staging=</absolute/path/to/somewhere/> export ipfs_data=</absolute/path/to/somewhere_else/>
Start a container running ipfs and expose ports 4001, 5001 and 8080:
docker run -d --name ipfs_host -v $ipfs_staging:/export -v $ipfs_data:/data/ipfs -p 4001:4001 -p 4001:4001/udp -p 127.0.0.1:8080:8080 -p 127.0.0.1:5001:5001 ipfs/go-ipfs:latest
Watch the ipfs log:
docker logs -f ipfs_host
Wait for ipfs to start. ipfs is running when you see:
Gateway (readonly) server listening on /ip4/0.0.0.0/tcp/8080
You can now stop watching the log.
Run ipfs commands:
docker exec ipfs_host ipfs <args...>
For example: connect to peers
docker exec ipfs_host ipfs swarm peers
cp -r <something> $ipfs_staging docker exec ipfs_host ipfs add -r /export/<something>
Stop the running container:
docker stop ipfs_host
When starting a container running ipfs for the first time with an empty data directory, it will call
ipfs init to initialize configuration files and generate a new keypair. At this time, you can choose which profile to apply using the
IPFS_PROFILE environment variable:
docker run -d --name ipfs_host -e IPFS_PROFILE=server -v $ipfs_staging:/export -v $ipfs_data:/data/ipfs -p 4001:4001 -p 4001:4001/udp -p 127.0.0.1:8080:8080 -p 127.0.0.1:5001:5001 ipfs/go-ipfs:latest
Private swarms inside Docker
It is possible to initialize the container with a swarm key file (
/data/ipfs/swarm.key) using the variables
swarm.key with the contents of the variable itself, whilst
IPFS_SWARM_KEY_FILE copies the key from a path stored in the variable. The
IPFS_SWARM_KEY_FILE overwrites the key generated by
docker run -d --name ipfs_host -e IPFS_SWARM_KEY=<your swarm key> -v $ipfs_staging:/export -v $ipfs_data:/data/ipfs -p 4001:4001 -p 4001:4001/udp -p 127.0.0.1:8080:8080 -p 127.0.0.1:5001:5001 ipfs/go-ipfs:latest
The swarm key initialization can also be done using docker secrets (requires docker swarm or docker-compose):
cat your_swarm.key | docker secret create swarm_key_secret - docker run -d --name ipfs_host --secret swarm_key_secret -e IPFS_SWARM_KEY_FILE=/run/secrets/swarm_key_secret -v $ipfs_staging:/export -v $ipfs_data:/data/ipfs -p 4001:4001 -p 4001:4001/udp -p 127.0.0.1:8080:8080 -p 127.0.0.1:5001:5001 ipfs/go-ipfs:latest
Key rotation inside Docker
If needed, it is possible to do key rotation in an ephemeral container that is temporarily executing against a volume that is mounted under
# given container named 'ipfs-test' that persists repo at /path/to/persisted/.ipfs $ docker run -d --name ipfs-test -v /path/to/persisted/.ipfs:/data/ipfs ipfs/go-ipfs:v0.7.0 $ docker stop ipfs-test # key rotation works like this (old key saved under 'old-self') $ docker run --rm -it -v /path/to/persisted/.ipfs:/data/ipfs ipfs/go-ipfs:v0.7.0 key rotate -o old-self -t ed25519 $ docker start ipfs-test # will start with the new key
If you have previously installed IPFS before and you are running into problems getting a newer version to work, try deleting (or backing up somewhere else) your IPFS config directory (~/.ipfs by default) and rerunning
ipfs init. This will reinitialize the config file to its defaults and clear out the local datastore of any bad entries.
Please direct general questions and help requests to our forum or our IRC channel (freenode #ipfs).
If you believe you've found a bug, check the issues list and, if you don't see your problem there, either come talk to us on IRC (freenode #ipfs) or file an issue of your own!
This table is generated using the module
Listing of the main packages used in the IPFS ecosystem. There are also three specifications worth linking here:
||p2p networking library|
||pubsub built on libp2p|
||the core 'filesystem' logic|
||a mutable filesystem editor for unixfs|
||helper datatypes for the filestore|
||exchange service interface|
||(dummy) offline implementation of the exchange service|
||bitswap protocol implementation|
||service that plugs a blockstore and an exchange together|
||datastore interfaces, adapters, and basic implementations|
||datastore utility functions|
||a filesystem-based datastore|
||a metric-collecting database adapter|
||a leveldb based datastore|
||a badgerdb based datastore|
||IPNS datastructures and validation logic|
||go-ipfs config file definitions|
||lockfile management functions|
||block interfaces and implementations|
||blockstore interfaces and implementations|
||IPLD-Merkledag implementation (and then some)|
||CLI & HTTP commands library|
||CLI & HTTP commands library|
||an old, stable shell for the IPFS HTTP API|
||a new, unstable shell for the IPFS HTTP API|
||core go-ipfs API interface definitions|
|Metrics & Logging|
||metrics collection interfaces|
||prometheus-backed metrics collector|
||routing (content, peer, value) helpers|
||the kitchen sink|
||utility functions for parsing IPFS multiaddrs|
For brevity, we've omitted most go-libp2p, go-ipld, and go-multiformats packages. These package tables can be found in their respective project's READMEs:
Some places to get you started on the codebase:
- Main file: ./cmd/ipfs/main.go
- CLI Commands: ./core/commands/
- Bitswap (the data trading engine): go-bitswap
- IPFS : The
Map of go-ipfs Subsystems
WIP: This is a high-level architecture diagram of the various sub-systems of go-ipfs. To be updated with how they interact. Anyone who has suggestions is welcome to comment here on how we can improve this!
CLI, HTTP-API, Architecture Diagram
Description: Dotted means "likely going away". The "Legacy" parts are thin wrappers around some commands to translate between the new system and the old system. The grayed-out parts on the "daemon" diagram are there to show that the code is all the same, it's just that we turn some pieces on and some pieces off depending on whether we're running on the client or the server.
If you make changes to the protocol buffers, you will need to install the protoc compiler.
Find more documentation for developers on docs
This repository falls under the IPFS Code of Conduct.
You can contact us on the freenode #ipfs-dev channel or attend one of our weekly calls.
The go-ipfs project is dual-licensed under Apache 2.0 and MIT terms:
- Apache License, Version 2.0, (LICENSE-APACHE or http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0)
- MIT license (LICENSE-MIT or http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT)